- PDF HZ-06-22-215-EN-N, ISBN 978-92-95225-50-3, DOI 10.2926/135072
- Publication date
- 3 May 2022
- European Climate, Infrastructure and Environment Executive Agency
The impact of pollution, overuse and climate change on marine ecosystems, along with the growth of the blue economy, have prompted growing calls for international regulation of the oceans. The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) is a framework convention that has developed to protect and preserve the marine environment, along with other international instruments such as the International Maritime Organization (IMO), the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the emerging Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework. An ecosystem-based management approach has also developed in parallel (Box 1). This ocean governance framework covers many activities in the oceans and seas and serves as the basis for national and international marine and maritime action and cooperation.